Significance of intra-personal intelligence and academic self-concept as predictors of metacognition


  • Sameer Babu M Jamia Millia Islamia
  • Swalaiha Babu M Jamia Millia Islamia



Intrapersonal intelligence, academic self-concept, metacognition, predictors


This paper emphasizes the importance of comprehending students' metacognition to their intra-personal intelligence and academic self-concept and their intra-personal intelligence. Metacognition is a comprehensive word that includes the structures associated with people's cognitive processes and information. Metacognition refers to an individual's awareness and understanding of their cognitive processes and ability to manage and shape them effectively. Metacognition, academic self-concept, and intrapersonal intelligence are interconnected in educational settings. Metacognition, which refers to the understanding and control of one's thinking processes, significantly influences an individual's perception of their academic abilities and overall self-concept in an academic context. Intrapersonal intelligence, also known as self-awareness and self-management, plays a crucial role in developing and applying metacognitive strategies. This, in turn, significantly impacts academic success and how individuals perceive themselves in educational settings. The authors discuss the importance of studies that examined the correlation between specific variables from Scopus and Google Scholar. A total of twenty-five studies were carefully chosen and thoroughly analyzed. There is a need to explore students' metacognition, specifically focusing on their intra-personal intelligence and academic self-concept as determinants.

Author Biography

Swalaiha Babu M, Jamia Millia Islamia

  • Author: 1 Swalaiha, Researcher, Department of Educational Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi, India
  • Author:2 Dr Sameer Babu M, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi, India


Abdel-Haq, M. E., MAmin, M. M., Helwa, S. H., & Abdel-Hady Abdel-Gawad, R. (2019). Using Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences for developing EFL grammatical competence among preparatory school pupils. Journal of Faculty of Education, 118(2), 1-23.

Aditi, K. (2016). Relation between academic achievement, executive function, intelligence, and meta cognition. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(4), 166-174.

Ahmed, M., & Najmah, P. (2022). Study of Metacognition and Academic Achievement among College Students of Kashmir. International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Communication and Technology, 2(1), 266-270.

Ajmal, M., & Rafique M. (2018) Relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement of distance learners. Pakistan Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 4(2), 225-244.

Almasi, J. F. (2003). Teaching strategic process in reading. New York, NY: The Guilford.

Alzahrani, K. S. (2017). Metacognition and its role in mathematics learning: An exploration of the perceptions of a teacher and students in a secondary school. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 12(3), 521–537.

Anthonysamy, L., Koo, A-C., & Hew, S.-H. (2020). Self-regulated learning strategies and non-academic outcomes in higher education blended learning environments: A one-decade review. Education and Information Technologies, 1–28.

Arens, A. K., Jansen, M., Preckel, F., Schmidt, I., & Brunner, M. (2020). The structure of academic self-concept: A methodological review and empirical illustration of central models. Review of Educational Research, 91(1), 34–72.

Armstrong, T. (2000). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. (2nd ed.). Virginia, USA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Arnidha, Y., & Maulani, E. (2022, July 12). The effect of intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence on mathematics learning motivation. UNION: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika, 10(2), 217–225.

Barman, P., & Roy, A. (2021). Intrapersonal intelligence and decision-making ability of higher secondary school students. MIER Journal of Educational Studies, Trends and Practices, 11(2), 343–367.

Basith, A. (2021). The relationship among academic self-concept, academic self-esteem, and academic achievement. Konselor, 10(2), 36-42.

Battle, J., & Lewis, M. (2002). The increasing significance of class: The relative effects of race and socioeconomic status on academic achievement. Journal of Poverty, 6(2), 21-35.

Beccaria, L., Kek, M., Huijser, H., Rose, J., & Kimmins, L. (2014). The interrelationships between student approaches to learning and group work. Nurse Education Today, 34(7), 1094–1103.

Behjat, F. (2012). Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences: Do they really work in foreign-language learning? Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 32, 351–355.

Blegur, J., Wasak, M. R. P., & Pabala, P. (2018). Students’ academic self-concept: A founding strategy in learning process. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 6(4), 45-54.

Boser, U. (2018). Learning is a learned behavior. Here's how to get better at it.

Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Broadbent, J., & Poon, W. L. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning strategies & academic achievement in online higher education learning environments: A systematic review. Internet and Higher Education, 27, 1-13.

Brookover, W. B., & Lezotte, L. W. (1979). Changes in school characteristics coincident with changes in student achievement (ED 181 005). East Lansing, MI: Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University.

Byrne, B. M. (1986). Self-concept/academic achievement relations: An investigation of dimensionality, stability, and causality. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 18(2), 173–186.

Chatzinikolaou, M. D., & Tsirides, A. (2020). Academic self-concept and critical thinking dispositions: Devising a predictive model of college students’ degree commitment. Journal of Advanced Research in Social Sciences, 3(3), 1–13.

Cho, M. H., & Heron, M. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning: The role of motivation, emotion, and use of learning strategies in students’ learning experiences in a self-paced online mathematics course. Distance Education, 36(1), 80–99.

Dumford, A. D., & Miller, A. L. (2018). Online learning in higher education: Exploring advantages and disadvantages for engagement. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 30(3), 452–465.

Dummett, C. W. (2006). Successful pedagogies for an Australian multicultural classroom. International Education Journal, 7(5), 778-789

Efklides, A. (2011). Interactions of metacognition with motivation and affect in self-regulated learning: The MASRL model. Educational Psychologist, 46(10), 6-25.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive–developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. Basic Books

Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple intelligences after twenty years. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois.

Gardner, H., & Moran, S. (2006) The Science of multiple intelligences theory: A response to Lynn Waterhouse. Educational Psychologist, 41(4), 227-232.

Goradia, T., & Bugarcic, A. (2017). A social cognitive view of self-regulated learning within online environment. Advances in Integrative Medicine., 4(1), 5–6.

Gorges, J., & Hollmann, J. (2019). The structure of academic self-concept when facing novel learning content: Multidimensionality, hierarchy, and change. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 15(3), 491–508.

Guay, F., Marsh, H. W., & Boivin, M. (2003). Academic self-concept and academic achievement: Developmental perspectives on their causal ordering. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 124–136.

Güner, P., & Erbay, H. N. (2021). Metacognitive skills and problem-solving. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 7(3), 715–734.

Gurat, M., & Medula Jr, C. (2016). Metacognitive strategy knowledge use through mathematical problem-solving amongst pre-service teachers. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(2), 170-189.

Hacker, D. J., Dunlosky, J. (2003). Not all metacognition is created equal. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 95, 73-79.

Hansford, B. C., & Hattie, J. A. (1982). The relationship between self and achievement/performance measures. Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 123-142.

Harrison, G. M., & Vallin, L. M. (2018). Evaluating the metacognitive awareness inventory using empirical factor-structure evidence. Metacognition and Learning, 13, 15–38.

Harter, S. (2012). The construction of the self: Developmental and sociocultural foundations (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.

Hashemyolia, S., Asmuni, A., Ayub, A. F. M., Daud, S. M., & Shah, J. A. (2015). Motivation to use self-regulated learning strategies in learning management system amongst science and social science undergraduates. Asian Social Science, 11(3), 49.

Hayat, A. A., Shateri, K., Amini, M., & Shokrpour, N. (2020). Relationships between academic self-efficacy, learning-related emotions, and metacognitive learning strategies with academic performance in medical students: a structural equation model. BMC Medical Education, 20(1).

Hossain, K. M., & Chowdhury, S. S. (2023). A study of meta-cognition among college students in relation to their academic achievement. Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research, 6(6), 826-832.

Hu, M., & Li, H. (2017). Student engagement in online learning: A review. International Symposium on Educational Technology (ISET), 39–43.

Isiksal, M. (2010). A comparative study on undergraduate students’ academic motivation and academic self-concept. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 572–585.

Izzati, L. R., & Mahmudi, A. (2018, September). The influence of metacognition in mathematical problem-solving. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1097, 012107.

Jacob, J. E., Lanza, S., Osgood, D. W., Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Changes in children’s self-competence and value: gender and domain differences across grades one through twelve. Child Development, 73(2), 509-527.

Jaiswal, S. K., & Choudhuri, R. (2017). Academic self-concept and academic achievement of secondary school students. American Journal of Educational Research, 5(10), 1108-1113.

Khan, F. A., & Khan, S. A. (2013). Metacognitive reading strategies in relationship with scholastic achievement in science of IX standard students of English medium schools in Aurangabad city. MIER Journal of Educational Studies, 3(1),119–129.

Kornhaber, M. L., Ferros, E., & Veenema, S. (2004). Multiple intelligence: Best ideas from theory and practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon

Kuhn, D. (2000). Theory of mind, metacognition, and reasoning: A life-span perspective. In P. Mitchell, & K. J. Riggs (Eds.), Children’s reasoning and the mind (pp. 301–326). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Kuhn, D., & Dean, D. (2004). A bridge between cognitive psychology and educational practice. Theory into Practice, 43(4), 268-273.

Liu, W. C., & Wang, C. K. J. (2005). Academic self-concept: A cross-sectional study of grade and gender differences in a Singapore secondary school. Asia Pacific Education Review, 6(1), 20-27.

Mantzaris, J. (1999). Adding a dimension to career counselling. Focus on Basics, 3(1), 26-43. Retrieved from:

Marsh, H. W., & Craven, R. G. (2006). Reciprocal effects of self-concept and performance from a multidimensional perspective: Beyond seductive pleasure and unidimensional perspectives. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 133–163.

Marsh, H. W., & Martin, A. J. (2011). Academic self-concept and academic achievement: Relations and causal ordering. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(1), 59–77.

Marsh, H. W., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Köller, O., & Baumert, J. (2005). Academic self-concept, interest, grades, and standardized test scores: Reciprocal effects models of causal ordering. Child Development, 76(2), 397–416.

Martinez, M. E. (2006). What is metacognition?. Phi delta kappan, 87(9), 696-699.

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., Panter, A. T., & Salovey, P. (2012). The growing significance of hot intelligences. American Psychologist, 67(6), 502–503.

Moreno-Marcos, P. M., Muñoz-Merino, P. J., Maldonado-Mahauad, J., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Alario-Hoyos, C., & Delgado Kloos, C. (2019). Temporal analysis for dropout prediction using self-regulated learning strategies in self-paced MOOCs. Computers & Education, 145, 103728.

Mori, T., Ishida, M., Shimizu, M., & Tominaga, M. (2001). What factors do affect students’ self-educational abilities? Effects of learning goals, causal attribution, self-efficacy, and the implicit theory of intelligence. Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University: Part 1, Learning and Curriculum Development, 50, 1-8.

Mowat, J. G. (2011). The development of intrapersonal intelligence in pupils experiencing social,emotional and behavioural difficulties. Educational Psychology in Practice, 27(3), 227-253.

Mulbar, U., Arwadi, F., & Assagaf, S. F. (2019). The influences of intrapersonal intelligence and interpersonal intelligence towards students’ mathematics learning outcomes. In 1st International Conference on Advanced Multidisciplinary Research (ICAMR 2018) (pp. 219-221). Atlantis Press.

Nosratinia, M., & Adibifar, S. (2014). The effect of teaching metacognitive strategies on field-dependent and independent learners’ writing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1390–1399.

Nurulwahida, A., & Azman, A. (2014). The effectiveness of the modular enrichment activities based on Gardner multiple intelligences and Sternberg thinking skills. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(2), 55.-62.

Okwuduba, E. N., Nwosu, K. C., Okigbo, E. C., Samuel, N. N., & Achugbu, C. (2021). Impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional intelligence and self-directed learning on academic performance among pre-university science students. Heliyon, 7(3), e06611.

O'Neil Jr, H. F., & Brown, R. S. (1998). Differential effects of question formats in math assessment on metacognition and affect. Applied measurement in Education, 11(4), 331-351.

Osses, S., & Jaramillo, S. (2008). Metacognición: un camino para aprender a aprender [Metacognition: A way to learn to learn]. Estudios Pedagógicos, 34(1), 187-197.

Papaleontiou-Louca, E. (2014). Metacognition. In D. Phillips (ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and philosophy. (pp. 523-526). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Parker, J. L. (2016). Academic success for the 21st century learner: Intrapersonal intelligence and resilience (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation), Walden University. Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.

Perez, M. M. P., & Ruz, N. R. (2019). Intrapersonal intelligence and motivation in foreign language learning - Ability of higher secondary school students. European Scientific Journal, 10(17), 142-150.

Puška, A., Puška, E., Dragi?, L., & Maksimovi?, A. (2020). Students’ satisfaction with E-learning platforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Technology, Knowledge, and Learning, 26, 173-191.

Räisänen, M., Postareff, L., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2020). Students’ experiences of study-related exhaustion, regulation of learning, peer learning and peer support during university studies. European Journal of Psychology of Education 36, 1135-1157.

Roth, A., Ogrin, S., & Schmitz, B. (2016). Assessing self-regulated learning in higher education: A systematic literature review of self-report instruments. Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Accountability, 28, 225–250.

Sawhney, N., & Bansal, S. (2015). Metacognitive awareness of undergraduate students in relation to their academic achievement. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(1),108-114.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (2016). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sense making in mathematics (Reprint). Journal of education, 196(2), 1-38.

Sellars, M. (2006). The role of intrapersonal intelligence in self-directed learning. Issues in Educational Research, 16(1), 95-119.

Sellars, M., & Sanber, S. (2006). Intrapersonal intelligence: Supporting students in the english classroom. The International Journal of Learning: Annual Review, 12(9), 307–320.

Seyf, A. (2007). Developing Psychology Education and Learning Psychology, (5th ed). Tehran: Agah Publication.

Shavelson, R. J., & Bolus, R. (1982). Self-concept: The interplay of theory and methods. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 3-17.

Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research, 46, 407-441.

Shetty, D. G. (2014). A study of the metacognition levels of student teachers on the basis of their learning styles. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSRJRME), 4(1), 43–51.

Sholikhati, R., Mardiyana, & Sari Saputro, D. R. (2017). Students’ thinking level based on intrapersonal intelligence. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 943, 012007.

Siqueira, M. A. M., Gonçalves, J. P., Mendonça, V. S., Kobayasi, R., Arantes-Costa, F. M., Tempski, P. Z., & Martins, M. D. A. (2020). Relationship between metacognitive awareness and motivation to learn in medical students. BMC Medical Education, 20(1).

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2002). Internal and external frames of reference for academic self-concept. Educational Psychologist, 37(4), 233-244.

Slavin, R. E. (2009). Educational psychology: Theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Tan, R. E. (2019). Academic self-concept, learning strategies and problem-solving achievement of university student. European Journal of Education Studies, 6(2), 287-303.

Terras, M. M., & Ramsay, J. (2015). Massive open online courses (MOOCs): Insights and challenges from a psychological perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 472–487.

Trautwein, U., Ludtke, O., Koller, O., & Baumert, J. (2006). Self-esteem, academic self-concept, and achievement: How the learning environment moderates the dynamics of self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(2), 334-349.

Tuononen, T., Parpala, A., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2017). The transition from university to working life – An exploration of graduates’ perceptions of their academic competences. In E. Kyndt, V. Donche, & K. Trigwell (Eds.), Higher Education Transitions-Theory and Research (pp. 238–253). London: Routledge.

Tuononen, T., Parpala, A., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2019). Complex interrelations between academic competences and students’ approaches to learning - Mixed-methods study. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 44(8), 1080–1097.

Veenman, V. J. K., Van Hout-Wolters, B., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 3-14.

Vosniadou, S., Darmawan, I., Lawson, M. J., Van Deur, P., Jeffries, D., & Wyra, M. (2021). Beliefs about the self-regulation of learning predict cognitive and metacognitive strategies and academic performance in pre-service teachers. Metacognition and Learning, 16, 523-554

Wellman, H. M., Ritter, K., & Flavell, J. H. (1975). Deliberate memory behavior in the delayed reactions of very young children. Developmental Psychology, 11(6), 780–787.

Wimmer, S., Lackner, H. K., Papousek, I., & Paechter, M. (2019). Influences of different dimensions of academic self-concept on students’ cardiac recovery after giving a stressful presentation. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 12, 1031-1040.

Yang, L., Yan, Z., Zhang, D., Boud, D., & Datu, J. A. (2023). Exploring the roles of academic self-concept and perseverance of effort in self-assessment practices. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 30(2), 104–129.

Young, A., & Fry, J. D. (2008). Metacognitive awareness and academic achievement in college students. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 8(2), 1-10.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64–70.

Zimmerman, M. A., Copeland, L. A., Shope, J. T., & Dielman, T. E. (1997). A longitudinal study of self-esteem: Implications for adolescent development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26(2), 117-141.



How to Cite

Babu M, S., & Babu M, S. (2024). Significance of intra-personal intelligence and academic self-concept as predictors of metacognition . International Journal of Studies in Psychology, 4(1), 46-54.