Compensation Management and Employee Wellbeing of Academic Staff in Ugandan Private Universities during COVID-19 Lockdown


  • Wilson Mugizi Kyambogo University
  • Joseph Rwothumio Kyambogo University
  • Christopher Mwujuka Amwine Medical Research and Health Inclusion, Kampala



Compensation Administration, Determination, Employee well-being management, Psychological, Social, Subjective, Workplace


This study examined the impact of compensation management on academic staff's employee well-being in private universities in Uganda during the COVID-19 lockdown. Two dimensions of compensation management considered were compensation determination and compensation administration. Employee well-being was studied in terms of psychological well-being, social well-being, workplace well-being and subjective well-being. This study used a cross-sectional design on a sample of academic staff from five private universities.  Factor analysis was used to identify key items of compensation management and employee well-being, followed by descriptive, correlation and multiple regression analyses. Multiple regression analysis assessed the magnitude and strength of the impact of compensation management on employee well-being. The results supported the hypotheses on the influence of compensation determination and administration on employee well-being. Therefore, compensation determination and administration are important in enhancing the academic staff's well-being in private universities in contingent situations such as COVID-19 lockdown. In managing compensation issues in contingent situations, managers of private universities should determine and administer compensation considering employees' interests. This study adds to the scanty literature on compensation management and employee well-being. It identifies compensation management factors that organisations should consider to promote employee well-being in contingent situations.


Abela, F. & Debono, M. (2019). The relationship between psychological contract breach and job-related attitudes within a manufacturing Plant. SAGE Open, 9(1), 1-10. 77/2158244018822179

Acharya, S. (2017). Wages and wage determination. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 60, 303-308.

Ahabwe, C. (2020, 25 May). PML daily coronavirus update: UCU suspends staff pay as lockdown batters education sector. PML Daily. Retrieved from:

Ahmad, M. I., Firman, K., Smith, H. & Smith, A. P. (2018). Psychological contract fulfilment and well-being. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 5(12) 90-101.

Ahmad, M. I., Firman, K., Smith, H. & Smith, A. P. (2018). Psychological contract fulfilment and well-being. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 5(12), 90-101.

Ajala, E. M. & Bolarinwa, K. O. (2015). Organisational justice and psychological well-being of employees in the local government service of Osun State, Nigeria. African Research Review, 9(4), 55-72.

Amaitum, J. (2020, May). Ndejje University suspends staff salaries starting April due to coronavirus. CampScum. Retrieved from: › ndejje-university-suspends –staff-salari...

Anandarajan, ?M., Teo, T. S. H. & ?Simmers, C. A. (Eds.) (2014). The Internet and workplace transformation. London, UK: Routledge.

Armstrong, M. (2007). A handbook of employee reward management and practice (2nd Ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page Publishers

Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong's handbook of management and leadership: Developing effective people skills for better leadership and management (3rd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page Publishers

Asmundson, G. J. G., & Taylor, S. (2020). Coronaphobia: Fear and the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 70, 1-2.

Baptiste, N. R. (2008). Tightening the link between employee well-being at work and performance. Management decision, 46(2), 284-309. 5174081085416 8

Bryson, A., Forth, J., & Stokes, L. (2017). Does employees' subjective well-being affect workplace performance? Human Relations, 70(8), 1017-1037. 1177/00187267 17693073

Burke, ?R. J., & Richardsen, A. M. (Eds.) (2019). Creating psychologically healthy workplaces. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Burns R. A. (2017). Psychosocial well-being. In: Pachana N. A. (Eds). Encyclopaedia of geropsychology. Singapore: Springer.

Chivasa, S., & Hurasha, C. I. (2015). Wages determination in post hyperinflationary Zimbabwe. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(1), 1-14.

Cicognani, E. (2014). Social well-being. In: Michalos A. C. (Eds). Encyclopaedia of quality of life and well-being research. Dordrecht: Springer. -94-007-0753-5_2797

Diekmann, N. (2015). Understanding pay: Perceptions, communication and impact in for-profit organisations (Doctoral Dissertation, The University of St. Thomas St. Paul, Minnesota, USA). Retrieved from:

Ellis, J. L. (2017). Factor analysis and item analysis. Applying Statistics in Behavioural Research, 11-59.

Fox, M. (2015). Developing as a trainee educational psychologist: Establishing the psychological contract. Educational Psychology Research and Practice, 1(10), 17–22

Goretzko, D., Pham, T. T. H. & Bühner, M. (2019). Exploratory factor analysis: Current use, methodological developments and recommendations for good practice. Current Psychology, 1-12.

Greenberg, J. (1990) Organisational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16, 399-432.

Greenberg, J. (2011). Organisational justice: The dynamics of fairness in the workplace. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbooks in psychology. APA handbook of industrial and organisational psychology, Vol. 3. Maintaining, expanding, and contracting the organisation (p. 271–327). American Psychological Association. 037/12171-008

Gupta, M. (2014). Employees' satisfaction towards monetary compensation practices. Global Journal of Finance and Management, 6(8), 757-764.

Howard, M. C. (2016). A review of exploratory factor analysis decisions and overview of current practices: What we are doing and how can we improve? International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 32(1), 51-62. 2015.1087664

Hu, G., & Wuq, W. (2020). From guidance to practice: Promoting risk communication and community engagement for prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in China. Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 1-5.

Huong, L., Zheng, C., & Fujimoto, Y. (2016). Inclusion, organisational justice and employee well-being. International Journal of Manpower, 37(6), 945-964.

Ilies, R., Aw, S. S., & Pluut, H. (2015). Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(6), 827-838. 2015.1071422

Kabonesa, C., & Kindi, F. I. (2020). Assessing the relationship between gender-based violence and covid-19 pandemic in Uganda. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Retrieved from: › documents › Assessing+the+Relationship.

Kelechi, N. G., Akpa, V. O., Egwuonwu, T. K., Akintaro, A. A., Shonubi A. O., & Herbertson A. E. (2016). The effect of compensation administration on employee productivity. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN Chapter), 5(8), 40-47.

Korstjens, I., & Moser, A. (2018). Series: practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 4: trustworthiness and publishing. European Journal of General Practice, 24(1), 120-124.

Krekel, C., Ward, G., & De Neve, J. (2019). Employee well-being, productivity, and firm performance. Saïd Business School Research Papers. Retrieved from: Eurekaeure

Krishantha, P. D. D. M. (2018). Employee well-being: Effectiveness on motivation and organisational performance. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, 7(7), 23-40.

Lai, S., Bogoch, I. I., Ruktanonchai, N. W., Watts, A., Li, Y., Yu, J., Lv, X., Yang, W., Yu, H., Khan, K., Li, Z., & Tatem, A. J. (2020). Assessing spread risk of Wuhan novel coronavirus within and beyond China, January-April 2020: A travel network-based modelling study. Paper in collection COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv.

Ledimo, O. (2015). An exploratory study of factors influencing organisational justice among government employees. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 31(4), 1549-1562.

Lucas, R. (2016). Subjective well-being in psychology. The Oxford Handbook of Well-Being and Public Policy, 403-423.

Marasi, S., & Bennett, R. J. (2016). Pay communication: Where do we go from here? Human Resource Management Review, 26(1), 50-58. 7.002

Mathis, ?R. L., Jackson, ?J. H. & Valentine, S. R. (2013). Human resource management. Stamford, USA: Cengage Learning.

Matino, M. (2018). Effectiveness of employees compensation-measured by customer satisfaction (study conducted at private banks of Ethiopia_Snnpr_Wolaita Sodo Branches). Business and Economics Journal, 9(1), 1-5. 341

Milkovich, G. M., & Newman, J. M. (2004). Compensation (8th ed.). Burr Ridge, USA: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Morrison, J. T. (2017). Factor Analysis, Exploratory. The International Encyclopaedia of Communication Research Methods, 1-14. rm 0102

Mugizi, W. (2007). Motivation and work attitude of academic staff in public universities in Uganda, a case of Mbarara University of Science and Technology (Masters Dissertation, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda).

Mugizi, W. & Bakkabulindi, F. E. K. (2018). Human resource management practices: Developing and testing an instrument in the context of academic staff in universities in Uganda. Journal of Educational Review, 10(1) 130-142.

Nery, V. D. F., Neiva, E. R., & Mendonça, H. (2016). The changing context and the organizational justice impact on the employee well-being. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 26(65), 317-324.

Nichols, G. (2013). The psychological contract of volunteers: A new research agenda. Voluntas, 24, 986-1005.

Nielsen, K., Nielsen, M. B., Ogbonnaya, C., Känsälä, M., Saari, E. & Isaksson, K. (2017). Workplace resources to improve both employee well-being and performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Work & Stress, 31(2), 101-120.

Nima, A. A., Cloninger, K. M., Persson, B. N., Sikström, S., & Garcia, D. (2020). Validation of subjective well-being measures using item response theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(3036).

Olum, R., & Bongomin, F. (2020). Uganda's first 100 COVID-19 cases: Trends and lessons. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 05.073

Pan, X., Chen, M., Hao, Z., & Bi, W. (2018). The effects of organisational justice on positive organisational behavior: Evidence from a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(2315), 1-16. 17.02315

Patnaik, P. & Suar, D. (2019). Analyses of publications on compensation management from 2004 to 2017. Compensation & Benefits Review, 51(2), 55-76. 10.1177/08863687 19860673

Pradhan, R. K. & Hati, L. (2019). The Measurement of Employee Well-being: Development and Validation of a Scale. Global Business Review, 1-23. doi: 10.1177/0972150919859101

Qian, X., Ren, R., Wang, Y., Guo, Y., Fang, J., Wu, Z., Liu, P., Han, T. & Members of Steering Committee, Society of Global Health, Chinese Preventive Medicine Association (2020). Fighting against the common enemy of COVID-19: A practice of building a community with a shared future for mankind. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(34).

Rani, R., Garg, P. & Rastogi, R. (2012). Organisational justice and psychological well-being of police employees: A relationship study. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 1(5), 183-194.

Sahai, A. & Singh, A. (2016). Organisational justice enhances subjective well-being. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(3), 21-33. doi: 10.25215/0303.099

Sahu, P. (2020). Closure of universities due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on education and mental health of students and academic staff. Cureus 12(4), e7541.

Shafiro, M. V., Hanson, G. C., Truxillo, D. M. & Hammer, L. B. (2007). Employee reactions to a reduction in benefit-related compensation: A fairness perspective. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 10(2), 105-125. 701451239

Sharma, D. K. & ?Goyal, R. C. (2017). Hospital administration and human resource management (7th ed.). New Delhi, India: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Sisk, H. L. (1969). Principles of management: A systems approach to the management process. Cincinnati, USA: South-western Publishing Company.

Sohrabia, C., Alsafib, Z., O'Neilla, N., Khan, M., Kerwanc, A., Al-Jabirc, A., Iosifidisa, C. & Aghad, R. (2020). World Health Organisation declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). International Journal of Surgery, 76, 71-76.

Srivastava, U. R. (2015). Multiple dimensions of organisational justice and work-related outcomes among health-care professionals. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 5, 666-685.

Sule, O. E. & Amuni, S. I. (2014). Wages and salaries administration as motivational tool in Nigerian organisation (A case study of Nestle Nigeria PLC). Journal of Business Theory and Practice, 2(2), 247-266.

Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach's alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273-1296.

Tavakol, M. & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach's Alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55. doi: 10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd.

The Independent. (2020, 17 April). Nkumba, Ndejje universities warn about April salaries. The Independent. Retrieved ›

Wambede, F. (2020, 16 May). IUIU suspends workers' contracts. Daily Monitor. Retrieved from: ›

Warr, P. & Nielsen, K. (2018). Well-being and work performance. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers.

Wenzel, A. K., Krause, T. A. & Vogel, D. (2019). Making performance pay work: The impact of transparency, participation, and fairness on controlling perception and intrinsic motivation. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 39(2), 232-255.

Williams, M. L., Brower, H. H., Ford, L. R., Williams, L. J. & Carraher, S. M. (2008). A comprehensive model and measure of compensation satisfaction. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81(4), 639-668. /096317 907X248851

Yong, A. G. & Pearce, S. (2013). A beginner's guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 79-94.



How to Cite

Mugizi, W., Rwothumio, J., & Amwine, C. M. . (2021). Compensation Management and Employee Wellbeing of Academic Staff in Ugandan Private Universities during COVID-19 Lockdown. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research, 3(1), 1-12.

Most read articles by the same author(s)