Students’ spatial thinking toward the school environment in Indonesia




Spatial thinking, school environment, students, cognitive map, sketch map


This study describes the level of cognitive mapping among students in one of the senior high schools in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the cognitive map of secondary students using a sketch map. The cognitive map elements studied were paths, edges, landmarks, districts, and nodes. This research uses an interpretive paradigm to reveal how students make meaning of their school environment through map sketches. The research approach used was descriptive qualitative. Data collection techniques included a map sketching test and direct interviews with six randomly selected key informants. Cognitive map analysis was used to analyse the cognitive map elements in students' map sketches. The results showed that second-grade students have diverse cognitive maps of their school environment. Thus, this study recommends that attention and substantial efforts from various parties, especially geography subject teachers, be more intense in utilising the surrounding environment as a geography learning laboratory at SMUK ST. Fransiskus Xaverius Ruteng.


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How to Cite

Niman, E. M., & Wejang, H. E. A. . (2023). Students’ spatial thinking toward the school environment in Indonesia. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research, 5, 61-71.