Pragmatic modifiers in teachers’ polite requests in EFL classroom interaction in Manggarai, Indonesia




Politeness, pragmatic modifier, request, EFL classroom, classroom interaction


This research mainly explores pragmatic modifiers in shaping teachers’ polite requests in English Foreign Language classroom interaction (henceforth: EFL). The research was designed qualitatively, employing non-participant observation and field-note methods. Audio-video recording and note-taking were used to obtain the data on the male and female teachers’ utterances during classroom interaction. The key apparatuses are a smartphone Vivo of Y21 and a digital voice recorder of 32 GB to capture natural-occurring data. The data were analysed through three interactive procedures of qualitative data analysis; data condensation, display, and conclusion drawing. The data interpretation was primarily drawn on the pragmatic theory of politeness, FTAs, and pragmatic modifiers. Part of the data was analysed from language and gender perspectives. The findings yielded that the male and female teachers applied internal and external pragmatic modifiers to enact polite requests in classroom interaction settings. The internal pragmatic modifiers cover downtoner, politeness marker, appreciative opening, and hedged performative opening. The external pragmatic modifiers include vocative, disarmer, and propitiator. There is a slight difference between male and female teachers in realising those types of pragmatic modifiers. It was partly related to the features of women’s language. However, such empirical evidence could not be directly generated for language and gender. The findings have implications for further investigations to probe the issue in depth.

Author Biographies

I Wayan Simpen, Udayana University (Universitas Udayana) Bali, Indonesia

Ketut Artawa, Udayana University (Universitas Udayana) Bali, Indonesia


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How to Cite

Gunas, T., Simpen, I. W. ., Sudipa, I. N., & Artawa, K. . (2023). Pragmatic modifiers in teachers’ polite requests in EFL classroom interaction in Manggarai, Indonesia. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education Research, 5, 24-34.