Politokrasie, nihilisme en organismiese biopolitiek

  • Andries Raath University of the Free State, South Africa
Keywords: Aristoteles, Biopolitiek, Nasionaal-Sosialisme, Nietzsche, Politokratiese kommunitarisme, Aristotle, Biopolitics, National-Socialism, Politocratic communitarianism

Abstract

Die politieke gemeenskapsbegrip van politokratiese kommunitarisme is die uitvloeisel van die dialektiese spanninge tussen rasionalisme/irrasionalisme, die universele/partikuliere en empirisme/fenomenalisme in die Aristoteliese vorm-materiemotief. Aristoteles het die polis (synde ʼn organismiese biopolitieke orde) as die antwoord op die dialektiese spanninge inherent aan die politieke gemeenskap beskou. Friedrich Nietzsche het die Aristoteliese biopolitieke polis-orde versterk deur die idee van natuurlike Wording in sy steun vir die idee van die antieke Griekse polis. Die Nasionaal-Sosialistiese ideaal van Nordiese meerderwaardigheid is op die Aristoteliese staatsidee en Nietzsche se Romantieke irrasionalisme oorgeplant. Die resultate van die Nasionaal-Sosialistiese gemeenskapsideaal was die totalitêre idee van die staat, wat aan sowel die Griekse populêre opvattings oor die staat en Nietzsche se ideaal van die biopolitieke Wordingsprinsipe  beslag gegee het. Herman Dooyeweerd se waarneming dat die Nasionaal-Sosialistiese staat baie soortgelyk aan die biopolitieke totalitêre staat van Aristoteles is, verteenwoordig ʼn fundamentele insig in die dialektiese aard van die Griekse grondmotief van vorm en materie. Tot die mate dat politokratiese kommunitarisme dieselfde grondmotief deel, staan dit nie teenoor Nietzsche se nihilisme soos politokratiese kommunitariërs aanvoer nie. Nasionaal-Sosialistiese gemeenskapsideale staan véél nader aan Aristoteles en politokratiese kommunitarisme as Nietzsche se vitalisme. Dit word voorts beklemtoon dat die Nasionaal-Sosialistiese biopolitieke oogmerke beduidend deur Nietzsche se vitalistiese irrasionalisme beïnvloed is en nie daarvan losgemaak kan word nie. Die gevolgtrekking is dat Aristoteles, Nietzsche en die Nasionaal-Sosialisme gemeenskaplike grond deel vir sover dié ideologieë uit dieselfde grondmotief spruit en die oogmerke van die biopolitieke staat deel. Voortvloeiend uit dié grondmotief het Nietzsche se vitalisme en die Nasionaal-Sosialisme uiteindelik die Aristoteliese biopolitiek tot sy logiese konklusies gevoer.

Politocratic communitarianism’s concept of political community is the upshot of the dialectical tensions between rationalism/irrationalism, the universal/particular and empiricism/phenomenalism in the form and matter motive of Aristotle’s philosophy. Aristotle regarded the polis (an organismic biopolitical order) as the solution to the dialectical tensions inherent to the political community. Friedrich Nietzsche strengthened the Aristotelian biopolitical order by postulating the idea of natural Becoming in support of the idea of the ancient Greek polis. Subsequently National-Socialism grafted its mythological ideals of Nordic supremacy onto the Aristotelian concept of the state and Nietzsche’s Romantic irrationalism. The outcome of National-Socialism’s community-ideal was the totalitarian state, thereby giving effect to both the philosophical expression of the ancient Greek popular conviction that the state is the highest rung of man’s moral development, and Nietzsche’s ideal to establish a biopolitical order on the principle of Becoming. It is surmised that Herman Dooyeweerd’s view that the National-Sosialistic state is very much like the idea of the biopolitical totalitarian state of Aristotle, represents a fundamental insight into the dialectical nature of the Greek ground motive of form and matter. To the measure that politocratic communitarianism shares the same basic ground motive, it does not stand over and against Nietzsche’s nihilism as supporters of politocratic communitarianism aver. However, National-Socialism’s community ideals are much closer to Aristotle and politocratic communitarianism than Nietzsche’s vitalism. It must be emphasised, however, that National-Socialism’s biopolitical aims were strenthened to a considerable measure by Nitzsche’s vitalistic irrationalism and cannot be divested therefrom. It is concluded that Aristotle, Nietzsche and National-Socialism share common ground to the measure that all three ideologies emanate from the same basic ground motive of form and matter and all three support the notion of a biopolitical totalitarian state. Proceeding from this ground motive Nietzsche’s vitalism and National-Socialism ultimately carried Aristotelian biopolitcs to its logical conclusion.

Published
2016-09-30
How to Cite
Raath, A. (2016). Politokrasie, nihilisme en organismiese biopolitiek. Tydskrif Vir Christelike Wetenskap | Journal for Christian Scholarship, 52(3), 81-115. Retrieved from http://pubs.ufs.ac.za/index.php/tcw/article/view/405
Section
Artikels | Articles

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